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Использование

Начало работы

Создайте файл с именем Taskfile.yml в корне вашего проекта. Атрибут cmds должен содержать команды задачи. Пример ниже позволяет скомпилировать приложение Go и использовать esbuild чтобы собрать и минимизировать несколько CSS файлов в один.

version: '3'

tasks:
build:
cmds:
- go build -v -i main.go

assets:
cmds:
- esbuild --bundle --minify css/index.css > public/bundle.css

Запуск задач настолько прост, что достаточно выполнить команду:

task assets build

Task использует mvdan.cc/sh - нативный интерпретатор sh на Go. Таким образом, вы можете писать команды sh / bash, и они будут работать даже в Windows, где обычно не доступны sh или bash. Просто помните, что любой исполняемый файл, который вызывается, должен быть доступен ОС или находиться в переменной PATH.

Если вы опустите имя задачи, то будет использоваться имя "default".

Поддерживаемые названия файлов

Task будет искать следующие файлы, в порядке приоритета:

  • Taskfile.yml
  • taskfile.yml
  • Taskfile.yaml
  • taskfile.yaml
  • Taskfile.dist.yml
  • taskfile.dist.yml
  • Taskfile.dist.yaml
  • taskfile.dist.yaml

Идея создания вариантов .dist заключается в том, чтобы позволить проектам иметь одну фиксированную версию (.dist), при этом позволяя отдельным пользователям переопределить Taskfile, добавив дополнительный Taskfile.yml (который будет находится в .gitignore).

Запуск Taskfile из поддиректории

Если Taskfile не найден в текущем рабочем каталоге, он будет искать его вверх по дереву файлов, пока не найдет его (похоже на то, как работает git). При запуске Task из подкаталога, он будет работать так, как будто вы запустили его из каталога, содержащего Taskfile.

Вы можете использовать эту функцию вместе со специальной переменной {{.USER_WORKING_DIR}}, чтобы создавать переиспользуемые задачи. Например, если у вас есть монорепозиторий с каталогами для каждого микросервиса, вы можете cd в директорию микросервиса и запустить команду задачи, без создания нескольких задач или Taskfile с идентичным содержимым. Например:

version: '3'

tasks:
up:
dir: '{{.USER_WORKING_DIR}}'
preconditions:
- test -f docker-compose.yml
cmds:
- docker-compose up -d

В этом примере мы можем выполнить cd <service> и task up, и при условии, что каталог <service> содержит файл docker-compose.yml, Docker composition будет запущен.

Запуск глобального Taskfile

Если вы вызовите Task с помощью флага --global (псевдоним -g), будет искать ваш домашний каталог вместо рабочего каталога. In short, Task will look for a Taskfile that matches $HOME/{T,t}askfile.{yml,yaml} .

Это полезно, чтобы иметь автоматизацию, которую можно запустить из любого места вашей системы!

к сведению

Когда вы запускаете ваш глобальный Taskfile с помощью -g, task будут выполняться по умолчанию в директории $HOME, а не в вашей рабочей директории!

Как упоминалось в предыдущем разделе, специальная переменная {{.USER_WORKING_DIR}} может быть очень полезной для запуска команд в директории, из которой вы вызываете task -g.

version: '3'

tasks:
from-home:
cmds:
- pwd

from-working-directory:
dir: '{{.USER_WORKING_DIR}}'
cmds:
- pwd

Переменные среды

Task

Вы можете использовать env для создания своих переменных среды для конкретной task:

version: '3'

tasks:
greet:
cmds:
- echo $GREETING
env:
GREETING: Hey, there!

Также, вы можете создавать глобальные переменные окружения, которые будут доступны всем task:

version: '3'

env:
GREETING: Hey, there!

tasks:
greet:
cmds:
- echo $GREETING
к сведению

env поддерживает дополнение и извлечение вывода из команды shell или переменной, вы можете посмотреть в разделе Переменные.

.env файлы

Вы также можете попросить Task включать файлы, подобные .env используя настройку dotenv::

.env
KEYNAME=VALUE
testing/.env
ENDPOINT=testing.com
Taskfile.yml
version: '3'

env:
ENV: testing

dotenv: ['.env', '{{.ENV}}/.env.', '{{.HOME}}/.env']

tasks:
greet:
cmds:
- echo "Using $KEYNAME and endpoint $ENDPOINT"

Dotenv файлы также могут быть указаны на уровне task:

version: '3'

env:
ENV: testing

tasks:
greet:
dotenv: ['.env', '{{.ENV}}/.env.', '{{.HOME}}/.env']
cmds:
- echo "Using $KEYNAME and endpoint $ENDPOINT"

Переменные окружения, определенные на уровне task, заменят переменные объявленные в dotenv файлах:

version: '3'

env:
ENV: testing

tasks:
greet:
dotenv: ['.env', '{{.ENV}}/.env.', '{{.HOME}}/.env']
env:
KEYNAME: DIFFERENT_VALUE
cmds:
- echo "Using $KEYNAME and endpoint $ENDPOINT"
к сведению

Обратите внимание, в данный момент вы не можете использовать ключ dotenv во вложенных Taskfile.

Включение других Taskfile

Если вы хотите использовать task в других проектах (Taskfile), вы можете использовать механизм импорта для включения других Taskfile используя ключевое слово includes:

version: '3'

includes:
docs: ./documentation # will look for ./documentation/Taskfile.yml
docker: ./DockerTasks.yml

Task, описанные в указанных Taskfile, будут доступны с указанным пространством имен. Таким образом, вы можете запустить serve task из файла documentation/Taskfile.yml с помощью команды task docs:serve, или запустить build task из файла DockerTasks.yml с помощью команды task docker:build.

Относительные пути разрешаются относительно каталога, содержащего включающий Taskfile.

Специфичные для ОС Taskfile

С помощью version: '2' task автоматически включает любой Taskfile_{{OS}}.yml, если такой файл существует (например: Taskfile_windows.yml, Taskfile_linux.yml или Taskfile_darwin.yml). Так как такое поведение было несколько неявным, оно было удалено в версии 3. Тем не менее можно получить схожее поведение, явно импортировав соответствующие файлы:

version: '3'

includes:
build: ./Taskfile_{{OS}}.yml

Директория включенного Taskfile

По умолчанию task включенного Taskfile выполняются в текущем каталоге, даже если Taskfile находится в другом каталоге, но вы можете заставить задачи выполняться в другом каталоге, используя альтернативный синтаксис:

version: '3'

includes:
docs:
taskfile: ./docs/Taskfile.yml
dir: ./docs
к сведению

Включенные Taskfile должны использовать ту же версию схемы, что и основной Taskfile.

Опциональные включения

Включения, отмеченные как необязательные, позволяют Task продолжать выполнение в нормальном режиме, если включенный файл отсутствует.

version: '3'

includes:
tests:
taskfile: ./tests/Taskfile.yml
optional: true

tasks:
greet:
cmds:
- echo "This command can still be successfully executed if
./tests/Taskfile.yml does not exist"

Внутренние включения

Включения, отмеченные как internal, устанавливают также все задачи включенного файла как internal (см. секцию Внутренние task ниже). Это полезно, когда включаются утилитарные task, которые не предназначены для прямого использования пользователем.

version: '3'

includes:
tests:
taskfile: ./taskfiles/Utils.yml
internal: true

Переменные включенных Taskfile

Вы также можете указывать переменные при включении Taskfile. Это может быть полезно для создания переиспользуемого Taskfile, который можно настроить или даже включать более одного раза:

version: '3'

includes:
backend:
taskfile: ./taskfiles/Docker.yml
vars:
DOCKER_IMAGE: backend_image

frontend:
taskfile: ./taskfiles/Docker.yml
vars:
DOCKER_IMAGE: frontend_image

Псевдонимы пространств имен

При включении Taskfile, вы можете дать пространству имен список aliases. Это работает так же, как и псевдонимы task и может использоваться вместе, чтобы создавать более короткие и легко набираемые команды.

version: '3'

includes:
generate:
taskfile: ./taskfiles/Generate.yml
aliases: [gen]
к сведению

Переменные, объявленные во включенном Taskfile, имеют приоритет над переменными включающего Taskfile! Если вы хотите, чтобы переменную включенного Taskfile можно было переопределить, используйте функцию default: MY_VAR: '{{.MY_VAR | default "my-default-value"}}'.

Внутренние task

Внутренние task - это task, которые не могут быть вызваны напрямую пользователем. Они не будут отображаться в выводе при вызове команды task --list|--list-all. Другие task могут вызывать внутренние задачи обычным способом. Это полезно для создания переиспользуемых task, похожих на функции, которые не имеют практического значения при выполнении в командной строке.

version: '3'

tasks:
build-image-1:
cmds:
- task: build-image
vars:
DOCKER_IMAGE: image-1

build-image:
internal: true
cmds:
- docker build -t {{.DOCKER_IMAGE}} .

Директория task

По умолчанию, task выполняются в директории, где находится Taskfile. Но вы можете легко заставить task выполниться в другом каталоге, указав dir:

version: '3'

tasks:
serve:
dir: public/www
cmds:
# run http server
- caddy

Если директории не существует, task создаст ее.

Зависимости task

Зависимости выполняются параллельно, поэтому зависимости task не должны зависеть друг от друга. Если вы хотите принудительно запустить задачи последовательно, обратите внимание на раздел Вызов другой task, описанный ниже.

У вас могут быть task, которые зависят от других. Просто перечислите их в списке deps, и они будут автоматически запущены перед запуском родительской task:

version: '3'

tasks:
build:
deps: [assets]
cmds:
- go build -v -i main.go

assets:
cmds:
- esbuild --bundle --minify css/index.css > public/bundle.css

В примере выше, assets будет всегда запускаться перед build, если вы запустите task build.

Task может иметь зависимости без команд, чтобы группировать задачи вместе:

version: '3'

tasks:
assets:
deps: [js, css]

js:
cmds:
- esbuild --bundle --minify js/index.js > public/bundle.js

css:
cmds:
- esbuild --bundle --minify css/index.css > public/bundle.css

Если есть более одной зависимости, то они всегда выполняются параллельно для лучшей производительности.

подсказка

Вы также можете запустить несколько task, указанные в командной строке, параллельно, используя флаг --parallel (псевдоним -p). Например: task --parallel js css.

Если вы хотите передать информацию зависимостям, вы можете сделать это таким же образом, как и при вызове другой task:

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
deps:
- task: echo_sth
vars: { TEXT: 'before 1' }
- task: echo_sth
vars: { TEXT: 'before 2' }
silent: true
cmds:
- echo "after"

echo_sth:
cmds:
- echo {{.TEXT}}

Платформно-зависимые tasks и команды

Если вы хотите ограничить запуск tasks определенными платформами, вы можете сделать это используя ключ platforms:. Tasks могут быть ограничены определенной ОС, архитектурой или комбинацией этих элементов. В случае несоответствия, task или команда будут пропущены, и ошибка не вернется.

Разрешенные значения ОС и архитектур или GOOS и GOARCH определены языком Go здесь.

Task ниже build-windows будет выполняться только на Windows любой архитектуры:

version: '3'

tasks:
build-windows:
platforms: [windows]
cmds:
- echo 'Running command on Windows'

Это можно ограничить определенной архитектурой следующим образом:

version: '3'

tasks:
build-windows-amd64:
platforms: [windows/amd64]
cmds:
- echo 'Running command on Windows (amd64)'

Также можно ограничить task определенными архитектурами:

version: '3'

tasks:
build-amd64:
platforms: [amd64]
cmds:
- echo 'Running command on amd64'

Несколько платформ можно указать так:

version: '3'

tasks:
build:
platforms: [windows/amd64, darwin]
cmds:
- echo 'Running command on Windows (amd64) and macOS'

Отдельные команды также могут быть ограничены определенными платформами:

version: '3'

tasks:
build:
cmds:
- cmd: echo 'Running command on Windows (amd64) and macOS'
platforms: [windows/amd64, darwin]
- cmd: echo 'Running on all platforms'

Вызов другой task

Когда task имеет много зависимостей, они выполняются параллельно. Это частно приводит к более быстрому построению пайплайна. Однако, в некоторых ситуациях вам может понадобиться вызвать другие task последовательно. В этом случае используйте следующий синтаксис:

version: '3'

tasks:
main-task:
cmds:
- task: task-to-be-called
- task: another-task
- echo "Both done"

task-to-be-called:
cmds:
- echo "Task to be called"

another-task:
cmds:
- echo "Another task"

Используя атрибуты vars и silent, вы можете выбирать, передавать ли переменные и включать или выключать silent mode для вызова каждый раз отдельно:

version: '3'

tasks:
greet:
vars:
RECIPIENT: '{{default "World" .RECIPIENT}}'
cmds:
- echo "Hello, {{.RECIPIENT}}!"

greet-pessimistically:
cmds:
- task: greet
vars: { RECIPIENT: 'Cruel World' }
silent: true

Указанный выше синтаксис также поддерживается в deps.

подсказка

NOTE: If you want to call a task declared in the root Taskfile from within an included Taskfile, add a leading : like this: task: :task-name.

Prevent unnecessary work

By fingerprinting locally generated files and their sources

If a task generates something, you can inform Task the source and generated files, so Task will prevent running them if not necessary.

version: '3'

tasks:
build:
deps: [js, css]
cmds:
- go build -v -i main.go

js:
cmds:
- esbuild --bundle --minify js/index.js > public/bundle.js
sources:
- src/js/**/*.js
generates:
- public/bundle.js

css:
cmds:
- esbuild --bundle --minify css/index.css > public/bundle.css
sources:
- src/css/**/*.css
generates:
- public/bundle.css

sources and generates can be files or glob patterns. When given, Task will compare the checksum of the source files to determine if it's necessary to run the task. If not, it will just print a message like Task "js" is up to date.

exclude: can also be used to exclude files from fingerprinting. Sources are evaluated in order, so exclude: must come after the positive glob it is negating.

version: '3'

tasks:
css:
sources:
- mysources/**/*.css
- exclude: mysources/ignoreme.css
generates:
- public/bundle.css

If you prefer these check to be made by the modification timestamp of the files, instead of its checksum (content), just set the method property to timestamp.

version: '3'

tasks:
build:
cmds:
- go build .
sources:
- ./*.go
generates:
- app{{exeExt}}
method: timestamp

In situations where you need more flexibility the status keyword can be used. You can even combine the two. See the documentation for status for an example.

к сведению

By default, task stores checksums on a local .task directory in the project's directory. Most of the time, you'll want to have this directory on .gitignore (or equivalent) so it isn't committed. (If you have a task for code generation that is committed it may make sense to commit the checksum of that task as well, though).

If you want these files to be stored in another directory, you can set a TASK_TEMP_DIR environment variable in your machine. It can contain a relative path like tmp/task that will be interpreted as relative to the project directory, or an absolute or home path like /tmp/.task or ~/.task (subdirectories will be created for each project).

export TASK_TEMP_DIR='~/.task'
к сведению

Each task has only one checksum stored for its sources. If you want to distinguish a task by any of its input variables, you can add those variables as part of the task's label, and it will be considered a different task.

This is useful if you want to run a task once for each distinct set of inputs until the sources actually change. For example, if the sources depend on the value of a variable, or you if you want the task to rerun if some arguments change even if the source has not.

подсказка

The method none skips any validation and always run the task.

к сведению

For the checksum (default) or timestamp method to work, it is only necessary to inform the source files. When the timestamp method is used, the last time of the running the task is considered as a generate.

Using programmatic checks to indicate a task is up to date

Alternatively, you can inform a sequence of tests as status. If no error is returned (exit status 0), the task is considered up-to-date:

version: '3'

tasks:
generate-files:
cmds:
- mkdir directory
- touch directory/file1.txt
- touch directory/file2.txt
# test existence of files
status:
- test -d directory
- test -f directory/file1.txt
- test -f directory/file2.txt

Normally, you would use sources in combination with generates - but for tasks that generate remote artifacts (Docker images, deploys, CD releases) the checksum source and timestamps require either access to the artifact or for an out-of-band refresh of the .checksum fingerprint file.

Two special variables {{.CHECKSUM}} and {{.TIMESTAMP}} are available for interpolation within status commands, depending on the method assigned to fingerprint the sources. Only source globs are fingerprinted.

Note that the {{.TIMESTAMP}} variable is a "live" Go time.Time struct, and can be formatted using any of the methods that time.Time responds to.

See the Go Time documentation for more information.

You can use --force or -f if you want to force a task to run even when up-to-date.

Also, task --status [tasks]... will exit with a non-zero exit code if any of the tasks are not up-to-date.

status can be combined with the fingerprinting to have a task run if either the the source/generated artifacts changes, or the programmatic check fails:

version: '3'

tasks:
build:prod:
desc: Build for production usage.
cmds:
- composer install
# Run this task if source files changes.
sources:
- composer.json
- composer.lock
generates:
- ./vendor/composer/installed.json
- ./vendor/autoload.php
# But also run the task if the last build was not a production build.
status:
- grep -q '"dev": false' ./vendor/composer/installed.json

Using programmatic checks to cancel the execution of a task and its dependencies

In addition to status checks, preconditions checks are the logical inverse of status checks. That is, if you need a certain set of conditions to be true you can use the preconditions stanza. preconditions are similar to status lines, except they support sh expansion, and they SHOULD all return 0.

version: '3'

tasks:
generate-files:
cmds:
- mkdir directory
- touch directory/file1.txt
- touch directory/file2.txt
# test existence of files
preconditions:
- test -f .env
- sh: '[ 1 = 0 ]'
msg: "One doesn't equal Zero, Halting"

Preconditions can set specific failure messages that can tell a user what steps to take using the msg field.

If a task has a dependency on a sub-task with a precondition, and that precondition is not met - the calling task will fail. Note that a task executed with a failing precondition will not run unless --force is given.

Unlike status, which will skip a task if it is up to date and continue executing tasks that depend on it, a precondition will fail a task, along with any other tasks that depend on it.

version: '3'

tasks:
task-will-fail:
preconditions:
- sh: 'exit 1'

task-will-also-fail:
deps:
- task-will-fail

task-will-still-fail:
cmds:
- task: task-will-fail
- echo "I will not run"

Limiting when tasks run

If a task executed by multiple cmds or multiple deps you can control when it is executed using run. run can also be set at the root of the Taskfile to change the behavior of all the tasks unless explicitly overridden.

Supported values for run:

  • always (default) always attempt to invoke the task regardless of the number of previous executions
  • once only invoke this task once regardless of the number of references
  • when_changed only invokes the task once for each unique set of variables passed into the task
version: '3'

tasks:
default:
cmds:
- task: generate-file
vars: { CONTENT: '1' }
- task: generate-file
vars: { CONTENT: '2' }
- task: generate-file
vars: { CONTENT: '2' }

generate-file:
run: when_changed
deps:
- install-deps
cmds:
- echo {{.CONTENT}}

install-deps:
run: once
cmds:
- sleep 5 # long operation like installing packages

Ensuring required variables are set

If you want to check that certain variables are set before running a task then you can use requires. This is useful when might not be clear to users which variables are needed, or if you want clear message about what is required. Also some tasks could have dangerous side effects if run with un-set variables.

Using requires you specify an array of strings in the vars sub-section under requires, these strings are variable names which are checked prior to running the task. If any variables are un-set the the task will error and not run.

Environmental variables are also checked.

Syntax:

requires:
vars: [] # Array of strings
примечание

Variables set to empty zero length strings, will pass the requires check.

Example of using requires:

version: '3'

tasks:
docker-build:
cmds:
- 'docker build . -t {{.IMAGE_NAME}}:{{.IMAGE_TAG}}'

# Make sure these variables are set before running
requires:
vars: [IMAGE_NAME, IMAGE_TAG]

Variables

When doing interpolation of variables, Task will look for the below. They are listed below in order of importance (i.e. most important first):

  • Variables declared in the task definition
  • Variables given while calling a task from another (See Calling another task above)
  • Variables of the included Taskfile (when the task is included)
  • Variables of the inclusion of the Taskfile (when the task is included)
  • Global variables (those declared in the vars: option in the Taskfile)
  • Environment variables

Example of sending parameters with environment variables:

$ TASK_VARIABLE=a-value task do-something
подсказка

A special variable .TASK is always available containing the task name.

Since some shells do not support the above syntax to set environment variables (Windows) tasks also accept a similar style when not at the beginning of the command.

$ task write-file FILE=file.txt "CONTENT=Hello, World!" print "MESSAGE=All done!"

Example of locally declared vars:

version: '3'

tasks:
print-var:
cmds:
- echo "{{.VAR}}"
vars:
VAR: Hello!

Example of global vars in a Taskfile.yml:

version: '3'

vars:
GREETING: Hello from Taskfile!

tasks:
greet:
cmds:
- echo "{{.GREETING}}"

Dynamic variables

The below syntax (sh: prop in a variable) is considered a dynamic variable. The value will be treated as a command and the output assigned. If there are one or more trailing newlines, the last newline will be trimmed.

version: '3'

tasks:
build:
cmds:
- go build -ldflags="-X main.Version={{.GIT_COMMIT}}" main.go
vars:
GIT_COMMIT:
sh: git log -n 1 --format=%h

This works for all types of variables.

Looping over values

As of v3.28.0, Task allows you to loop over certain values and execute a command for each. There are a number of ways to do this depending on the type of value you want to loop over.

Looping over a static list

The simplest kind of loop is an explicit one. This is useful when you want to loop over a set of values that are known ahead of time.

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
cmds:
- for: ['foo.txt', 'bar.txt']
cmd: cat {{ .ITEM }}

Looping over your task's sources

You are also able to loop over the sources of your task:

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
sources:
- foo.txt
- bar.txt
cmds:
- for: sources
cmd: cat {{ .ITEM }}

This will also work if you use globbing syntax in your sources. For example, if you specify a source for *.txt, the loop will iterate over all files that match that glob.

Source paths will always be returned as paths relative to the task directory. If you need to convert this to an absolute path, you can use the built-in joinPath function. There are some special variables that you may find useful for this.

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
vars:
MY_DIR: /path/to/dir
dir: '{{.MY_DIR}}'
sources:
- foo.txt
- bar.txt
cmds:
- for: sources
cmd: cat {{joinPath .MY_DIR .ITEM}}

Looping over variables

To loop over the contents of a variable, you simply need to specify the variable you want to loop over. By default, variables will be split on any whitespace characters.

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
vars:
MY_VAR: foo.txt bar.txt
cmds:
- for: { var: MY_VAR }
cmd: cat {{.ITEM}}

If you need to split on a different character, you can do this by specifying the split property:

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
vars:
MY_VAR: foo.txt,bar.txt
cmds:
- for: { var: MY_VAR, split: ',' }
cmd: cat {{.ITEM}}

All of this also works with dynamic variables!

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
vars:
MY_VAR:
sh: find -type f -name '*.txt'
cmds:
- for: { var: MY_VAR }
cmd: cat {{.ITEM}}

Renaming variables

If you want to rename the iterator variable to make it clearer what the value contains, you can do so by specifying the as property:

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
vars:
MY_VAR: foo.txt bar.txt
cmds:
- for: { var: MY_VAR, as: FILE }
cmd: cat {{.FILE}}

Looping over tasks

Because the for property is defined at the cmds level, you can also use it alongside the task keyword to run tasks multiple times with different variables.

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
cmds:
- for: [foo, bar]
task: my-task
vars:
FILE: '{{.ITEM}}'

my-task:
cmds:
- echo '{{.FILE}}'

Or if you want to run different tasks depending on the value of the loop:

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
cmds:
- for: [foo, bar]
task: task-{{.ITEM}}

task-foo:
cmds:
- echo 'foo'

task-bar:
cmds:
- echo 'bar'

Forwarding CLI arguments to commands

If -- is given in the CLI, all following parameters are added to a special .CLI_ARGS variable. This is useful to forward arguments to another command.

The below example will run yarn install.

$ task yarn -- install
version: '3'

tasks:
yarn:
cmds:
- yarn {{.CLI_ARGS}}

Doing task cleanup with defer

With the defer keyword, it's possible to schedule cleanup to be run once the task finishes. The difference with just putting it as the last command is that this command will run even when the task fails.

In the example below, rm -rf tmpdir/ will run even if the third command fails:

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
cmds:
- mkdir -p tmpdir/
- defer: rm -rf tmpdir/
- echo 'Do work on tmpdir/'

If you want to move the cleanup command into another task, that is possible as well:

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
cmds:
- mkdir -p tmpdir/
- defer: { task: cleanup }
- echo 'Do work on tmpdir/'

cleanup: rm -rf tmpdir/
к сведению

Due to the nature of how the Go's own defer work, the deferred commands are executed in the reverse order if you schedule multiple of them.

Go's template engine

Task parse commands as Go's template engine before executing them. Variables are accessible through dot syntax (.VARNAME).

All functions by the Go's slim-sprig lib are available. The following example gets the current date in a given format:

version: '3'

tasks:
print-date:
cmds:
- echo {{now | date "2006-01-02"}}

Task also adds the following functions:

  • OS: Returns the operating system. Possible values are windows, linux, darwin (macOS) and freebsd.
  • ARCH: return the architecture Task was compiled to: 386, amd64, arm or s390x.
  • splitLines: Splits Unix (\n) and Windows (\r\n) styled newlines.
  • catLines: Replaces Unix (\n) and Windows (\r\n) styled newlines with a space.
  • toSlash: Does nothing on Unix, but on Windows converts a string from \ path format to /.
  • fromSlash: Opposite of toSlash. Does nothing on Unix, but on Windows converts a string from / path format to \.
  • exeExt: Returns the right executable extension for the current OS (".exe" for Windows, "" for others).
  • shellQuote: Quotes a string to make it safe for use in shell scripts. Task uses this Go function for this. The Bash dialect is assumed.
  • splitArgs: Splits a string as if it were a command's arguments. Task uses this Go function

Example:

version: '3'

tasks:
print-os:
cmds:
- echo '{{OS}} {{ARCH}}'
- echo '{{if eq OS "windows"}}windows-command{{else}}unix-command{{end}}'
# This will be path/to/file on Unix but path\to\file on Windows
- echo '{{fromSlash "path/to/file"}}'
enumerated-file:
vars:
CONTENT: |
foo
bar
cmds:
- |
cat << EOF > output.txt
{{range $i, $line := .CONTENT | splitLines -}}
{{printf "%3d" $i}}: {{$line}}
{{end}}EOF

Help

Running task --list (or task -l) lists all tasks with a description. The following Taskfile:

version: '3'

tasks:
build:
desc: Build the go binary.
cmds:
- go build -v -i main.go

test:
desc: Run all the go tests.
cmds:
- go test -race ./...

js:
cmds:
- esbuild --bundle --minify js/index.js > public/bundle.js

css:
cmds:
- esbuild --bundle --minify css/index.css > public/bundle.css

would print the following output:

* build:   Build the go binary.
* test: Run all the go tests.

If you want to see all tasks, there's a --list-all (alias -a) flag as well.

Display summary of task

Running task --summary task-name will show a summary of a task. The following Taskfile:

version: '3'

tasks:
release:
deps: [build]
summary: |
Release your project to github

It will build your project before starting the release.
Please make sure that you have set GITHUB_TOKEN before starting.
cmds:
- your-release-tool

build:
cmds:
- your-build-tool

with running task --summary release would print the following output:

task: release

Release your project to github

It will build your project before starting the release.
Please make sure that you have set GITHUB_TOKEN before starting.

dependencies:
- build

commands:
- your-release-tool

If a summary is missing, the description will be printed. If the task does not have a summary or a description, a warning is printed.

Please note: showing the summary will not execute the command.

Псевдонимы task

Aliases are alternative names for tasks. They can be used to make it easier and quicker to run tasks with long or hard-to-type names. You can use them on the command line, when calling sub-tasks in your Taskfile and when including tasks with aliases from another Taskfile. They can also be used together with namespace aliases.

version: '3'

tasks:
generate:
aliases: [gen]
cmds:
- task: gen-mocks

generate-mocks:
aliases: [gen-mocks]
cmds:
- echo "generating..."

Overriding task name

Sometimes you may want to override the task name printed on the summary, up-to-date messages to STDOUT, etc. In this case, you can just set label:, which can also be interpolated with variables:

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
- task: print
vars:
MESSAGE: hello
- task: print
vars:
MESSAGE: world

print:
label: 'print-{{.MESSAGE}}'
cmds:
- echo "{{.MESSAGE}}"

Warning Prompts

Warning Prompts are used to prompt a user for confirmation before a task is executed.

Below is an example using prompt with a dangerous command, that is called between two safe commands:

version: '3'

tasks:
example:
cmds:
- task: not-dangerous
- task: dangerous
- task: another-not-dangerous

not-dangerous:
cmds:
- echo 'not dangerous command'

another-not-dangerous:
cmds:
- echo 'another not dangerous command'

dangerous:
prompt: This is a dangerous command... Do you want to continue?
cmds:
- echo 'dangerous command'
❯ task dangerous
task: "This is a dangerous command... Do you want to continue?" [y/N]

Warning prompts are called before executing a task. If a prompt is denied Task will exit with exit code 205. If approved, Task will continue as normal.

❯ task example
not dangerous command
task: "This is a dangerous command. Do you want to continue?" [y/N]
y
dangerous command
another not dangerous command

To skip warning prompts automatically, you can use the --yes (alias -y) option when calling the task. By including this option, all warnings, will be automatically confirmed, and no prompts will be shown.

предупреждение

Tasks with prompts always fail by default on non-terminal environments, like a CI, where an stdin won't be available for the user to answer. In those cases, use --yes (-y) to force all tasks with a prompt to run.

Silent mode

Silent mode disables the echoing of commands before Task runs it. For the following Taskfile:

version: '3'

tasks:
echo:
cmds:
- echo "Print something"

Normally this will be printed:

echo "Print something"
Print something

With silent mode on, the below will be printed instead:

Print something

There are four ways to enable silent mode:

  • At command level:
version: '3'

tasks:
echo:
cmds:
- cmd: echo "Print something"
silent: true
  • At task level:
version: '3'

tasks:
echo:
cmds:
- echo "Print something"
silent: true
  • Globally at Taskfile level:
version: '3'

silent: true

tasks:
echo:
cmds:
- echo "Print something"
  • Or globally with --silent or -s flag

If you want to suppress STDOUT instead, just redirect a command to /dev/null:

version: '3'

tasks:
echo:
cmds:
- echo "This will print nothing" > /dev/null

Dry run mode

Dry run mode (--dry) compiles and steps through each task, printing the commands that would be run without executing them. This is useful for debugging your Taskfiles.

Ignore errors

You have the option to ignore errors during command execution. Given the following Taskfile:

version: '3'

tasks:
echo:
cmds:
- exit 1
- echo "Hello World"

Task will abort the execution after running exit 1 because the status code 1 stands for EXIT_FAILURE. However, it is possible to continue with execution using ignore_error:

version: '3'

tasks:
echo:
cmds:
- cmd: exit 1
ignore_error: true
- echo "Hello World"

ignore_error can also be set for a task, which means errors will be suppressed for all commands. Nevertheless, keep in mind that this option will not propagate to other tasks called either by deps or cmds!

Output syntax

By default, Task just redirects the STDOUT and STDERR of the running commands to the shell in real-time. This is good for having live feedback for logging printed by commands, but the output can become messy if you have multiple commands running simultaneously and printing lots of stuff.

To make this more customizable, there are currently three different output options you can choose:

  • interleaved (default)
  • group
  • prefixed

To choose another one, just set it to root in the Taskfile:

version: '3'

output: 'group'

tasks:
# ...

The group output will print the entire output of a command once after it finishes, so you will not have live feedback for commands that take a long time to run.

When using the group output, you can optionally provide a templated message to print at the start and end of the group. This can be useful for instructing CI systems to group all of the output for a given task, such as with GitHub Actions' ::group:: command or Azure Pipelines.

version: '3'

output:
group:
begin: '::group::{{.TASK}}'
end: '::endgroup::'

tasks:
default:
cmds:
- echo 'Hello, World!'
silent: true
$ task default
::group::default
Hello, World!
::endgroup::

When using the group output, you may swallow the output of the executed command on standard output and standard error if it does not fail (zero exit code).

version: '3'

silent: true

output:
group:
error_only: true

tasks:
passes: echo 'output-of-passes'
errors: echo 'output-of-errors' && exit 1
$ task passes
$ task errors
output-of-errors
task: Failed to run task "errors": exit status 1

The prefix output will prefix every line printed by a command with [task-name] as the prefix, but you can customize the prefix for a command with the prefix: attribute:

version: '3'

output: prefixed

tasks:
default:
deps:
- task: print
vars: { TEXT: foo }
- task: print
vars: { TEXT: bar }
- task: print
vars: { TEXT: baz }

print:
cmds:
- echo "{{.TEXT}}"
prefix: 'print-{{.TEXT}}'
silent: true
$ task default
[print-foo] foo
[print-bar] bar
[print-baz] baz
подсказка

The output option can also be specified by the --output or -o flags.

Interactive CLI application

When running interactive CLI applications inside Task they can sometimes behave weirdly, especially when the output mode is set to something other than interleaved (the default), or when interactive apps are run in parallel with other tasks.

The interactive: true tells Task this is an interactive application and Task will try to optimize for it:

version: '3'

tasks:
default:
cmds:
- vim my-file.txt
interactive: true

If you still have problems running an interactive app through Task, please open an issue about it.

Short task syntax

Starting on Task v3, you can now write tasks with a shorter syntax if they have the default settings (e.g. no custom env:, vars:, desc:, silent: , etc):

version: '3'

tasks:
build: go build -v -o ./app{{exeExt}} .

run:
- task: build
- ./app{{exeExt}} -h localhost -p 8080

set and shopt

It's possible to specify options to the set and shopt builtins. This can be added at global, task or command level.

version: '3'

set: [pipefail]
shopt: [globstar]

tasks:
# `globstar` required for double star globs to work
default: echo **/*.go
к сведению

Keep in mind that not all options are available in the shell interpreter library that Task uses.

Watch tasks

With the flags --watch or -w task will watch for file changes and run the task again. This requires the sources attribute to be given, so task knows which files to watch.

The default watch interval is 5 seconds, but it's possible to change it by either setting interval: '500ms' in the root of the Taskfile passing it as an argument like --interval=500ms.

Also, it's possible to set watch: true in a given task and it'll automatically run in watch mode:

version: '3'

interval: 500ms

tasks:
build:
desc: Builds the Go application
watch: true
sources:
- '**/*.go'
cmds:
- go build # ...
к сведению

Note that when setting watch: true to a task, it'll only run in watch mode when running from the CLI via task my-watch-task, but won't run in watch mode if called by another task, either directly or as a dependency.